"We may safely rely on the disposition of the State legislatures
to erect barriers against the encroachments of the national authority."
Alexander Hamilton
(1757-1804) American statesman, Secretary of the Treasury
The Federalist Papers Federalist No. 85
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Reader comments about this quote:
Apparently not! We've gone way beyond mere "encroachments". We've adopted all 10 planks of the Communist Manifesto as the underlying form of Government we now suffer.
 -- J Carlton, Calgary     
    State legisltures erect very few barriers to any national authority since they all have their hands out for that wonderful , government largess.
     -- jim k, Austin, Tx     
    Oh, really? We can rely on the multimillionaire grossly corrupt corporate cronies in state governments to halt the monstrous murderous federal government? I recognize the FBI and CIA have blackmail info on all the Governors and police chiefs, even most of the Mayors and Sheriffs, thus they're all a den of vipers and thieves living largess on the backs of masses of poor people. Beyond that most of them are drug addicts and pedophiles who prefer sex with hookers rather than their wives. 50% of Americans are now poor and not one murderous state government out of the 50 has taken the side of the common masses. In fact, they've now disintegrated the protests of the masses, in criminal violation of the 1st amendment. Hamilton was a tyrant shill anyhow. All the founders were. They all chased their self interest above the interest of The People. The seeming most liberty minded of them, Jefferson, is who initiated the massive extermination of the Native Americans. AND he was a slave owner hypocrite who mealy mouthed philosophical rhetoric against slavery. What a charming bunch the founders were. Jefferson died sh*tting himself to death on the 4th of July, the 50th anniversary of the birth of the USA. That's a small dose of Karma considering the damage he did, murdering the Natives and convincing people to trust this vastly murderous government. People most associate the bill of rights with the constitution. People think the bill of rights IS the constitution. REALLY though, read the constitution, it's nothing but a document to set up the founders with a personal army that they be able to make war. The "bill of rights" are all AMENDMENTS to the constitution. The whole of the bill of rights arrived only after there was much protest from The People, people whose names have vanished from history, because they were TRULY freedom minded, not agents of Rothschilds bank, which was the first bank of the US and is now The US Federal Reserve Bank, Rothschilds tyrannical powers challenged in no way effectively since the founding. The Rothschilds London who the founders were supposedly fighting in their fake war against the British empire real war to kill militants randomly, thus weaken The People in Britain and in America.
     -- DanielVincentKelleyOnYoutube, Newport Vermont     
    This was the intent of the balance of powers. But obviously, it didn't work. The greatest flaw in the Constitution is the lack of 'law enforcement' upon the government itself. Instead of a servant government of, by, and for the People, it has transformed itself into a hegemony over the people. Indeed the banking cartel that was alive and well in the 16th and 17th centuries has carried on its corrupting influence in America, fueled by war, greed, and the insatiable lust for power. Of course, this differs little from communism, socialism, fascism, or any other totalitarian government -- whoever creates the money that a nation must use is absolute master and all must bow to him or starve. However, in a republican form of government, the state legislatures were meant to serve as the check against federal power becoming 'national' power. And that is still the way. The only thing Daniel seems to ignore is that the People are ultimately responsible and have the power -- and by using that collective power to rape and plunder -- whether it be the indians, the blacks, the south or north, the French, British, German, African, or even fellow Americans -- that heralded the end of the republic. Yes, the Rothschilds and their minions have been the source of war and slavery for hundreds of years, BUT we have allowed it, cheered to "bomb 'em, bomb 'em" usually with support from the pulpit -- indeed karma is a bitch. Either we will learn to be responsible for ourselves or we will attempt to find a good position as house slave, prison trustee, or government pensioner. I do believe civil war in the US is inevitable -- and probably financed on both sides by the Rothschilds again. They know what they are doing, the People do not, and because of that willful ignorance, so many are suffering under the yoke today.
     -- E Archer, NYC     
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    Communism? Thats soooo mid-20th Century how quaint. Carlton standing vigilant at the front door spying the landscape for the approach of the mythical communist occupation, as the fascist and the corporatists hoards are marching through the backdoor. All the while their enablers cry a Communists Are Coming distraction while they fashion the chains and shackles of the new feudalism. Good work, the corporatist thank you. And to Archer: so many are suffering under the yoke today. Exactly, the yoke placed around our necks by the transnational corporate financial military industrial complex. As for the quote: very interesting coming from one who is considered by most as the leader of the Federalist movement who argued for a strong central government and clashed repeatedly with Richard Henry Lee, a staunch states right advocate. Its interesting to note that for the most part the Federalist won out, and as suggested by the historical records, because the Federalist were much more organized with their organization spanning the various states, while the anti-federalist were disjointed, mired in their state provincialism. The one exception was the Richard Henry Lee drafted 10th Amendment, although, as we have seen, as been thwarted by the expansive Commerce Clause.
     -- Heathen Steven, Miami     
    Thanks Steven. Goes to show that even well spoken people can be ignorant progressives who care not at all for America's well being. Back to the fields with you sheep! You have work to do for "greater good" lol ;-)
     -- J Carlton, Calgary     
    PS Steven, Since you think the idea of the 10 Planks of the Communist manifesto being implemented in the US is a "joke"...let's hear you refute this:

    First Plank: Abolition of property in land and the application of all rents of land to public purposes. (Zoning - Model ordinances proposed by Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover widely adopted. Supreme Court ruled "zoning" to be "constitutional" in 1921. Private owners of property required to get permission from government relative to the use of their property. Federally owned lands are leased for grazing, mining, timber usages, the fees being paid into the U.S.. Treasury.)

    Second Plank: A heavy progressive or graduated income tax. (Corporate Tax Act of 1909. The 16th Amendment, allegedly ratified in 1913. The Revenue Act of 1913, section 2, Income Tax. These laws have been purposely misapplied against American citizens to this day.)

    Third Plank: Abolition of all rights of inheritance. (Partially accomplished by enactment of various state and federal "estate tax" laws taxing the "privilege" of transferring property after death and gift before death.)

    Fourth Plank: CONFISCATION OF THE PROPERTY OF ALL EMIGRANTS AND REBELS. (The confiscation of property and persecution of those critical - "rebels" - of government policies and actions, frequently accomplished by prosecuting them in a courtroom drama on charges of violations of non-existing administrative or regulatory laws.)

    Fifth Plank: Centralization of credit in the hands of the State, by means of a national bank with State capital and an exclusive monopoly. (The Federal Reserve Bank, 1913 - the system of privately owned Federal Reserve banks which maintain a monopoly on the valueless debt "money" in circulation.)

    Sixth Plank: Centralization of the means of communications and transportation in the hands of the State. (Federal Radio Commission, 1927; Federal Communications Commission, 1934; Air Commerce Act of 1926; Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938; Federal Aviation Agency, 1958; becoming part of the Department of Transportation in 1966; Federal Highway Act of 1916 (federal funds made available to States for highway construction); Interstate Highway System, 1944 (funding began 1956); Interstate Commerce Commission given authority by Congress to regulate trucking and carriers on inland waterways, 1935-40; Department of Transportation, 1966.)

    Seventh Plank: Extension of factories and instruments of production owned by the State, the bringing into cultivation of waste lands, and the improvement of the soil generally in accordance with a common plan. (Department of Agriculture, 1862; Agriculture Adjustment Act of 1933 -- farmers will receive government aid if and only if they relinquish control of farming activities; Tennessee Valley Authority, 1933 with the Hoover Dam completed in 1936.)

    Eighth Plank: Equal liability of all to labor. Establishment of industrial armies especially for agriculture. (First labor unions, known as federations, appeared in 1820. National Labor Union established 1866. American Federation of Labor established 1886. Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 placed railways under federal regulation. Department of Labor, 1913. Labor-management negotiations sanctioned under Railway Labor Act of 1926. Civil Works Administration, 1933. National Labor Relations Act of 1935, stated purpose to free inter-state commerce from disruptive strikes by eliminating the cause of the strike. Works Progress Administration 1935. Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, mandated 40-hour work week and time-and-a-half for overtime, set "minimum wage" scale. Civil Rights Act of 1964, effectively the equal liability of all to labor.)

    Ninth Plank: Combination of agriculture with manufacturing industries, gradual abolition of the distinction between town and country, by a more equitable distribution of population over the country. (Food processing companies, with the cooperation of the Farmers Home Administration foreclosures, are buying up farms and creating "conglomerates.")

    Tenth Plank: Free education for all children in public schools. Abolition of children's factory labor in its present form. Combination of education with industrial production. (Gradual shift from private education to publicly funded began in the Northern States, early 1800's. 1887: federal money (unconstitutionally) began funding specialized education. Smith-Lever Act of 1914, vocational education; Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 and other relief acts of the 1930's. Federal school lunch program of 1935; National School Lunch Act of 1946. National Defense Education Act of 1958, a reaction to Russia's Sputnik satellite demonstration, provided grants to education's specialties. Federal school aid law passed, 1965, greatly enlarged federal role in education, "head-start" programs, textbooks, library books.
     -- J Carlton, Calgary     
    Carlton, thanks, I needed a good laugh heading into the weekend. I started to respond in a serious manner, but when you state that the Interstate Highway system is a commie plot, as opposed to a publicly funded corporate subsidy, allowing for the transportation of private goods for private profit, or public education to supply private corporations with skilled labor, or stating "National Labor Relations Act of 1935, stated purpose to free inter-state commerce from disruptive strikes by eliminating the cause of the strike" - disruptive to who, oh yea corporate profit. ..and on and on. (Wait a minute, hold my beer... corporate need and government action - now what did Mussolini call that?) I realize that even this short analysis, let alone a full discourse would essential fall on deaf ears and generally a waste of my time (note: I've some experience with zealots). And finally, yes I think you have been staring out the front door with such determination looking for the elusive commie you're missing what is really happening in this country:.... "Corporations have been enthroned and an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money power of the country will endeavor to prolong its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until all wealth is aggregated in a few hands and the Republic is destroyed." - Abraham Lincoln
     -- Heathen Steven, Miami     
    What's your point Steven? It's "the rich" that are responsible? How about the COMMUNISTIC Government that enables their Corporate pals a Cronyist system in which to be corrupt...right alongside the Government itself. ? You're obviously a recent product of the Government school system who hasn't lived long enough to know real history or understand what is going on today.
     -- J Carlton, Calgary     
    Heathen Steven, both you and Carlton are right. The 10 planks have been thoroughly implemented in the Unified Socialists of Amerika (USA). Also, Corporatism (i.e. fascism) has always been the world banker's choice of managing Amerika. Corporations are a bifurcation. The State owning the 'res' or, totality of all while, it also retains ultimate by-law / infrastructure making capacities. Stock holders hold an inferior (at best) title - privilege while officers simply manage the day to day operations of the State enterprises. And you are right, some of the great proponents of individual inalienable rights, personal sovereignty, natural law, and a substantive freedom, like Richard Henry Lee (grandfather to Robert E. Lee) have been intentionally ignored by socialist (Fabian, communist, fascist, progressives, etc.) history writers.
     -- Mike, Norwalk     
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    Monocratic socialism in the USA, and the "mixed state" of Locke. not all capitalist are corporatist, who consider themselves only Sovereign. Many are capitalist who hide not behind Corp-Privilege with state and fed entities. Thought to be lesser, make up the backbone of industrious, well skilled individuals, that small business and the leadership of others for prosperity. 
     -- Ronw13, Oregon     
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